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ItemMaintenance and Repair of Laboratory, Diagnostic Imaging, and Hospital Equipment(1996) WHOA practical guide to the maintenance and repair of essential laboratory and hospital equipment. Intended for use in institutions that do not have specially trained technicians or engineers the book responds to the situation frequently seen in developing countries where much of the equipment is imported and adequate information on maintenance and repair is rarely provided by suppliers. With these special needs in mind the manual aims to help staff using specific types of equipment to understand basic principles of construction and operation adopt good working practices avoid common errors perform routine maintenance and spot the early signs of defects or deterioration. Advice on equipment repair concentrates on common causes of problems that can be solved without expertise in engineering. Throughout the manual line drawings illustrate features of construction and design while numerous checklists offer advice on periodic inspection and cleaning good working practices and the essential do's don'ts must's and never's of routine operation and maintenance. Information ranges from the steps to follow when recharging batteries through advice on how to protect microscopes in hot climates to instructions for changing a blown fuse in an ultrasound scanner. Basic safety procedures for protecting staff as well as patients are also described. The most extensive chapter covers the maintenance and repair of basic laboratory equipment moving from autoclaves and incubators to cell counters and systems for water purification. The remaining chapters describe the correct use maintenance and repair of diagnostic equipment anaesthetic and resuscitation equipment operating room equipment and ultrasound and X-ray diagnostic equipment. ItemInfection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting ￼(Engineering World Health, 1998) Lloyd, Ethleen; Perry, HelenThis manual describes a system for using VHF Isolation Precautions to reduce the risk of transmission of VHF in the health care setting. The VHF Isolation Precautions described in the manual make use of common low-cost supplies, such as household bleach, water, cotton cloth, and plastic sheeting. Although the information and recommendations are intended for health facilities in rural areas in the developing world, they are appropriate for any health facility with limited resources. ItemSelection of Basic Laboratory Equipment for Laboratories with limited Resources(WHO, 2000) Johns, Warren; El-Nageh, Mohamed M.This book provides a framework within which laboratory workers in developing countries can choose equipment and consumables. The book is addressed to two groups of people with different degrees of technical expertise and responsibilities. The first group is the laboratory staff working in developing countries. The second group is the staff involved in laboratory supplies procurement, such as hospital administrators, central stores officers and laboratory supplies procurement officers. The steps in buying equipment, procurement from suppliers, consumer problems, equipment receipt and maintenance, buying second hand laboratory equipment, minor equipment and consumables are all covered. The need for reliable laboratory power supplies, such as batteries and solar energy, is discussed comprehensively in a section covering energy requirements. Quick reference buyer's guides, forms for assessment of quotations and equipment data specification sheets provide easy reference to buying information and make the buying process easier. Item￼Pattern recognition in diagnostic imaging(2001) Corr, PeterAs modern, high technology based diagnostic imaging is moving increasingly into therapeutic medicine, and molecular imaging is becoming daily routine, it is impor- tant to remember that thousands of hospitals and medical institutions worldwide do not even have possibilities to perform the most basic examinations. Today, few other areas of medicine experience such a rapidly growing gap between what might be technically possible, e.g., what can be done in highly developed, rich countries com- pared to what is the reality in many less fortunate areas of the world. As the ultimate target for the World Health Organization is to provide Health For All, it is with great pleasure and sincere gratitude to Professor Carr, his staff and co- authors that this book on Pattern Recognition in Diagnostic Imaging is now being published and distributed. It aims in a simple, but precise way at assisting medical professionals doing a tremendous work to save lives and reduce suffering in countries where diagnostic imaging has not yet reached the stage of molecular imaging. We would warmly recommend that this book should not be put on a shelf or into a locker, but be used by everybody whose obligation it is to prescribe, perform, or interpret simple, but often life-saving diagnostic imaging procedures especially in locations where the presence of qualified and fully trained specialists would be a rare exception. The book is developed and published as a WHO Document under the umbrella of the Global Steering Group for Eduction and Training in Diagnostic Imaging. For further information, please contact: ItemWHO Manual of Diagnostic Imaging: Radiographic Anatomy and Interpretation of the Musculoskeletal System.pdf(WHO, 2002) Davis, A. Mark; Holger, PetterssonModern diagnostic imaging offers a vast spectrum of modalities and techniques, which enables us to study the function and morphology of the human body in details that approaches science fiction. However, it should be noticed that even in the most advanced Imaging Department in the economically privileged parts of the world, 70–80% of all clinically relevant questions may be solved by using the two main cornerstones of diagnostic imaging, which are Radiography (X-ray) and Ultrasonography. It should also be remembered that thousands of hospitals and institutions worldwide do not have the possibilities to perform even these fundamental imaging procedures, for lack of equipment and/ or diagnostic imaging skills. Therefore, WHO in collaboration with The International Commission for Radiologic Education (ICRE) of the International Society of Radiology (ISR) is creating a series of “WHO Manuals of Diagnostic Imaging”, developed under the umbrella of The Global Steering Group for Education and Training in Diagnostic Imaging. Among the members of this group are the major regional and global societies involved in Diagnostic Imaging, including the International Society of Radiology (ISR), The International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT), and the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB). The full series of manuals will primarily cover the examination techniques and interpretation of Radiography, in a later stage also Ultrasonography. It is meant for health care personnel who in their daily work are responsible for producing and interpreting radiographs, be it radiologists or other medical specialists, general practioners, or radiological technologists working in rural areas. The manuals are authored by authorities in the specific fields dealt within each manual, supported by a group of collaborators, that together cover the experience, knowledge and needs, which are specific for different regions of the world. It is our sincere hope that the manuals will prove helpful in the daily routine, facilitating the diagnostic work up and hence the treatment, to the best benefit for the patient. Item￼Laboratory Biosafety Manual Third Edition(2004) WHOFor more than 20 years, since it was first published in 1983 the Laboratory biosafety manual has provided practical guidance on biosafety techniques for use in laboratories at all levels. Good microbiological technique and appropriate use of biosafety equipment by well-trained staff remain the fundamental elements of laboratory biosafety. However, globalization significant advances in technology the emergence of new diseases and serious threats arising from the deliberate misuse and release of microbiological agents and toxins have necessitated a review of current procedures. For this new edition, therefore the manual has been extensively revised and expanded. The manual now covers risk assessment and the safe use of recombinant DNA technology and provides guidelines for the commissioning and certification of laboratories. Biosecurity concepts are introduced and the latest international regulations for the transport of infectious substances are reflected. Material on safety in health-care laboratories previously published elsewhere by WHO has also been incorporated. It is hoped that the manual will continue to encourage countries to implement biological safety programs and national codes of practice for the safe handling of potentially infectious materials. ItemX-ray equipment maintenance and repairs workbook for radiographers & radiological technologists(WHO, 2004) McClelland, Ian R.The topic of this workbook is routine maintenance and repairs. The material is designed to assist in the maintenance of equipment, and provide guidelines for locating equipment problems. In many cases this will allow local correction of fault situations. Where external assistance is required, good communication of the diagnosed problem will assist in reducing delay, or multiple service calls. accepts that responsibility and ensures that the programme happens effectively. ItemInstrumentación Médica en el Mundo en Desarrollo(Engineering World Health, 2006) Malkin, Robert¿Cómo prueba usted un desfibrilador en un cerdo recién sacrificado? ¿Cómo puede usted utilizar un pedazo de pollo para probar una unidad electroquirúrgica? ¿Cómo puede usted probar las luces de fototerapia antes de liberarlas para usarlas en infantes cuando usted no tiene un fotómetro? Estas son el tipo de preguntas que un ingeniero trabajando en el mundo en desarrollo se hace todos los días. El equipo de prueba apropiado no está disponible, y el hospital tiene una necesidad urgente. Usted no puede ni liberar el equipo sin probarlo, ni negarle al equipo médico la única pieza de equipo que le podría ayudar al paciente. ¿Qué debería hacer usted? Este libro suministra respuestas: los tipos de pruebas prácticas y sugerencias de reparaciones que los ingenieros pueden utilizar cuando están en un hospital pobremente equipado, lejos de un departamento clínico de ingeniera ItemMedical Instrumentation in the Developing World(Engineering World Health (EWH), 2006) Malkin, RobertHow do you test a defibrillator without a defibrillation tester? How can you use a piece of chicken to test an electrosurgery unit? These are the types of questions that an engineer working in a developing world hospital asks every day. The proper test equipment isn't available, and the hospital has a desperate need. This book provides the kind of practical testing and repairing suggestions that engineers can use when in a poorly equipped hospital, far from a clinical engineering department. ItemInstrumentation médicale dans le monde en développement(Engineering World Health, 2006) Malkin, RobertComment testez-vous un défibrillateur sur un cochon fraichement tué ? Comment pouvez-vous utiliser un morceau de poulet pour tester un bistouri électrique ? Comment pouvez-vous tester les bilirubinomètres avant de les mettre en service sur des enfants quand vous n'avez pas de photomètre ? C'est le type de questions qu'un ingénieur travaillant dans un hôpital d'un pays en développement se pose chaque jour. L'équipement de test approprié n'est pas disponible et l'hôpital en a désespérément besoin. Vous ne pouvez pas mettre en service l'équipement sans le tester ni priver le personnel médical du seul équipement qui pourrait aider le patient. Que devez-vous faire ? Ce livre fourni les réponses : les sortes de tests pratiques et les suggestions de réparation que les ingénieurs peuvent employer dans un hôpital très mal équipé, très loin d'un service de génie biomédical. Si vous êtes un ingénieur qui doit partir bientôt dans un pays en développement, un technicien d'un pays en développement ou simplement un visiteur d'un de ces pays qui désire aider à combler le manque considérable d'équipements médicaux, alors ce livre est pour vous. Ce livre s'adresse principalement aux ingénieurs et techniciens qui vont habituellement travailler dans un établissement de santé public de niveau secondaire d'un pays en développement. Lire ce livre et le prendre avec vous ne vous prépare pas complètement à cette aventure de travail dans les pays en développement, mais il devrait vous aider à comprendre ce qu'il faut en attendre, sur le plan technique. ItemThe WHO manual of diagnostic imaging RadiogRaphic anatomy and inteRpRetation of the chest and the pulmonaRy system(2006) Ellis, Stephen M.; Flower, ChristopherThe following text aims to provide an aid to the interpretation of the chest radiograph (CXR). This is not a comprehensive account of all possible chest diseases but a descriptive text to help identify the way in which chest pathology is manifested and diagnosed on CXR. The initial chapters deal with interpretive skills and pattern recognition and the later chapters demonstrate specific pathologies. ItemCalcukus Volume 2(2007) Herman, Edwin; Strang, GilbertCalculus is designed for the typical two- or three-semester general calculus course, incorporating innovative features to enhance student learning. The book guides students through the core concepts of calculus and helps them understand how those concepts apply to their lives and the world around them. Due to the comprehensive nature of the material, we are offering the book in three volumes for flexibility and efficiency. Volume 2 covers integration, differential equations, sequences and series, and parametric equations and polar coordinates. Our Calculus Volume 2 textbook adheres to the scope and sequence of most general calculus courses nationwide. We have worked to make calculus interesting and accessible to students while maintaining the mathematical rigor inherent in the subject. With this objective in mind, the content of the three volumes of Calculus have been developed and arranged to provide a logical progression from fundamental to more advanced concepts, building upon what students have already learned and emphasizing connections between topics and between theory and applications. The goal of each section is to enable students not just to recognize concepts, but work with them in ways that will be useful in later courses and future careers. The organization and pedagogical features were developed and vetted with feedback from mathematics educators dedicated to the project. ItemHUMAN PHYSIOLOGY(2007) Wikibooks ContributorsHuman physiology is the study of the functioning of the normal body, and is responsible for describing how various systems of the human body work. Explanations often begin at a macroscopic level and proceed to a molecular level. In 1926, Fritz Kahn portrayed the body as a complex chemical plant, as seen in the painting on the right. This textbook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course. As such, some material is deliberately left out (but references will be provided within chapters for students wishing to learn more). ItemDevloping Anaesthesia Textbook Version 1.6(2007) Pescod, DavidModern anaesthesia is safe. In countries that have extensive anaesthetic resources, the risk of dying is one in 100,000 to 500,000. The risk of death has decreased to one-tenth of what it was thirty years ago. Safety has improved with better knowledge of pharmacology and physiology, and advances in drugs, investigations, monitoring and education. The complexity and expense of providing anaesthesia has escalated. When resources (personnel, equipment, drugs and funding) are limited, an anaesthetist with good clinical skills and a thorough knowledge of physiology, pharmacology, equipment and how disease will affect the patient, can provide safe and effective anaesthesia. ItemMaintenance Manual for ￼Laboratory Equipment Second Edition(WHO, 2008) WHOThis manual has been developed to support personnel employed in health laboratories. Its purpose is to give a better understanding of the technical requirements regarding installation, use and maintenance of various types of equipment which play an important role in performing diagnostic testing. The manual also aims to provide support to personnel responsible for technical management, implementation of quality management and maintenance. Due to the diversity of origins, brands and models, this manual offers general recommendations. Equipment-specific details are explained in depth in the maintenance and installation user manuals from manufacturers. These should be requested and ordered through the procurement processes of the individual agencies and professionals responsible for the acquisition of technology, or directly from the manufacturer. ItemCore Medical Equipment(2011) WHOCore medical equipment” refers here to technologies that are commonly considered as important or necessary for specific preventive, diagnostic, treatment or rehabilitation procedures carried out in most health care facilities. Today, there are more than 10,000 types of medical devices available. The selection of appropriate medical equipment always depends on local, regional or national requirements; factors to consider include the type of health facility where the devices are to be used, the health work force available and the burden of disease experienced in the specific catchment area. It is therefore impossible to make a list of core medical equipment which would be exhaustive and/or universally applicable. With that being said, we have reproduced hereafter a set of core medical equipment fact sheets which have been issued by the ECRI Institute and the GMDN Agency, with a view to raising stakeholders’ awareness about their existence and their functionality. Each fact sheet displays a type of medical equipment, the health problems addressed by the device, the operation procedures, its typical size, weight and price range, and infrastructure requirements for effective and safe use. Technologies are placed into context of existing nomenclature systems; they are not specific to any brand, model or vendor. The equipment is classified under the following categories: therapeutic, diagnostic, chronic disease and child health. The WHO Department of Essential Health Technologies is planning to continuously update the list of core medical equipment and make it publicly available on the WHO website for information purposes, subject to the disclaimers here below.