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ItemAnaesthetic and resuscitation equipment(WHO, 1994)The Oxford Bellows is a hand-operated bellows unit for inflating the lungs (Fig. 4.1). It consists of an inlet connection and valve, the bellows in the middle, an outlet valve with outlet connection, and tap. There is a magnet in a holder under the bellows, which is used to immobilize the disk valve when a non-return valve (such as the Ambu) is in use. ItemAnesthesia Machines: Clinical Use and Principles of Operation(2006) Malkin, RobertThis article describes the clinical use of anesthesia machines as well as common problems and engineering details ItemAutoclave Operation and Use(WHO, 2008)The autoclave is a piece of equipment used for sterilizing. The word sterilizing means the destruction or elimination of all forms of life (microbial, including spores) present in inanimate objects by means of physical, chemical or gaseous procedures. The word sterilizer comes from the Latin word sterilis which means not to bear fruit. This chapter will focus exclusively on autoclaves as these are greatly used in public health establishments, clinical and research laboratories. This type of equipment is also known as a sterilizer. Sterilization must be considered as a group of very important interrelated processes for carrying out health services, (sterilization of materials, culture medium, instruments) within rigorous conditions of asepsis. ItemAutoclaves, ovens, incubators, and water-baths(WHO, 1996)The choice of laboratory equipment must take into account national regulations and the technical premises that determine the requirements for its appropriate use. The more complex an instrument is, the more the user will depend on the support of a supplier for maintenance; it is therefore pertinent to foresee the magnitude of the costs that may be involved in its use. Quite often, the costs for use and maintenance of an instrument will exceed the costs of purchase. It is also important to foresee the problems that may arise in case of failure of the instrument. Sometimes it may be advisable to purchase an instrument from a company that offers a guaranteed service, instead of another, perhaps cheaper, instrument for which a local maintenance service is not available. The operating manual describing the function, installation, and use of an instru ment should be provided free by the supplier and read by the user prior to any purchase. This avoids any subsequent misunderstanding. For example, it should be assured that an adequate power supply, as recommended for the instrument, is available locally, otherwise the purchase may be useless, or the cost of adaptation will increase the effective purchase price considerably. ItemAutoclaves: Equipment Found in the Clinical Laboratory(WHO, 2008)An autoclave is a device used to sterilize medical instruments and equipment. It uses steam and pressure in the absence of air to assure sterile conditions. The small, table-top autoclave uses heat to boil water into steam. The steam continues heating and the pressure continues to increase. Bacteria cannot survive in these conditions. However, not all viruses and spores are killed. Exposing materials to a single heat cycle is somewhat effective, but sterilizing them 3 times over a period of 3 days will kill most vegetative spores. ItemAutoclaves: Safety and Diagrams(VSO, 1995)This article covers the different types of loads an autoclave can be designed for and how each type of autoclave is different, it provides information for testing the different parts on an autoclave, and it covers how to maintain an autoclave to ensure it is safe. It also provides detailed procedures for operating a variety of different autoclaves. ItemBalances: Use and Principles of Operation(EWH, 2006) Malkin, RobertBalances are accurate and precise instruments used to measure the weight or mass of a substance or material. The ability to measure material as large as 50kg and as small as 10μg makes them quite common. There are two main categories of balances, mechanical and electromagnetic. Mechanical balances tend to be the simpler of the two. They generally consist of springs or lever arms, and use either a known force or mass to determine the unknown measurement. ItemBatteries: Clinical Use and Principles of Operation(2006) Malkin, RobertWhile not a medical device in itself, the battery, like the generator, is often the source of problems in developing world hospital equipment. The battery comes in a wide variety of forms and can be used to provide electrical energy and portability to all types of clinical devices, from surgical lighting to high drain clinical devices (e.g., x-ray machine). The underlying purpose of the battery remains the same, to simply convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy which can be readily used by a given device. ItemBattery Maintenance(VSO, 1995)Lead acid batteries are used in hospitals to start vehicles and emergency generators or for lighting including mobile theatre lamps. They are also used as part of solar power systems. It is essential that they are well maintained. A lead acid battery should be stored in a cool (but not cold), clean, well ventilated place. (In some instances it will be kept where it will be used - for example, if it is a vehicle starter, it will be kept in the vehicle.) ItemBiological Safety Cabinets(WHO, 2008)This equipment is designed for controlling aerosols and microparticles associated with managing potentially toxic or infectious biological material in laboratories in activities such as agitation, centrifugation, pipetting, and opening of pressurized containers. Safety cabinets have been designed to protect the user, the environment and the sample manipulated using appropriate ventilation conditions. They are also known as laminar flow cabinets and/or biosafety cabinets. ItemBlood Pressure Machines Clinical Use and Principles of Operation(EWH, 2006) Malkin, Robert2006Blood pressure machines are one of the primary diagnostic tools used by health care workers. Sphygmomanometers are used for determining the patient’s resting blood pressure, one of the preliminary tests that health care workers may perform. A diagnosis of high or low blood pressure can be indicative of other, more serious diseases. There are three main types of blood pressure machines: mercury, aneroid, and electronic. ItemBlood Pressure Monitor (Automatic) Preventative Maintenance(2014)This article provides repair and troubleshooting information for for automatic blood pressure machines. ItemBlood Pressure Monitor (Automatic) Troubleshooting Flowchart(EWH, 2014)This is a troubleshooting flowchart for automatic blood pressure monitors.